I found that the Samba service was no longer running after an upgrade to Fedora 16 and it didn't show up as an actual service.
Services are now controlled by systemd instead of system V. Look for samba with something like:
This should show you something like this unless the service is missing:
If it is not started you can start it with your old service command but under systemd you can use something like:
The enable command moves the smb service file into the correct spot (previously like "chkconfig
Which should look like this:
Based off of "this.":http://www.fedoraforum.org/forum/showthread.php?t=273554